Global affairs have become exceedingly complex, as globalization has created intertwined networks that merged into a global system in the last three decades without attracting much attention (Tchakarova 2020). Based on the logic of the systems theory (Bar-Yam 1997; Cutler 2022) when applied to international relations, the global system embodies a sum of the main socio-economic networks and interacts dynamically with its natural environment (Tchakarova 2021). It can be regarded as a set of interdependent components, which also function as systems of an economic, political, or social nature. Moreover, the main subsystems of the global system — e.g., global finance, monetary affairs, economy, trade, energy, as well as their equivalent structures such as international and regional institutions are currently undergoing a comprehensive transformation, accompanied by a myriad of crises (Tchakarova 2021).

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